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作者: 发表日期: 2005-11-25 浏览次数:

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    The latest trend in tourism is travel that combines preserving the natural world and sustaining the well-being of the human cultures that inhabit it. Known as ecotourism, the industry was unknown a decade ago yet now receives rave reviews from environmentally conscious travelers who immerse themselves in pristine places and authentic experiences. Unlike traditional tourism, ecotourism promotes environmentally responsible travel and seeks to ensure that visitors “take nothing but photographs and leave behind nothing but footprints.” An equally important part of the ecotourism equation is “sustainable” tourism that enables local people to protect their natural and cultural resources and profit from them at the same time. The truly “green” traveler also emphasizes the necessity for tours that strictly limit group size, coordinate with native guides, and donate a percentage of tour profits to community projects or research.
    Varying interpretations and definitions of ecotourism currently exist. The ecotourism umbrella seems to shelter all kinds of outdoor travel-related products—from beach hotels that happen to be near a rain forest to a national park visit, guided bird-watching, or scientist-led Antarctic cruising. It also encompasses adventure expeditions, such as trekking and river rafting, as well as less rigorous trips to culturally exotic or archaeologically important locations.
The general concept of ecotourism arose when conservationists realized the potential benefits in combining people’s interest in nature with their concern for the environment. An early model for ecotourism came from East Africa in the 1970s, when Kenya began collecting fees from safari-bound tourists heading into its national parks. Those revenues were earmarked to support conservation and park maintenance in its vast wildlife preserves.
    According to the World Tourism Organization, Kenya developed a good thing. In an early national parks study, the organization determined that each lion in Kenya's Amboseli Park was worth $27,000 per year in tourism revenues to local tribes and an elephant herd about $610,000. A complementary investigation by Wildlife Conservation International showed that as a refuge the park was valued at $18 per acre per year compared with 36 cents per acre under the most optimistic agricultural returns. Certainly such dramatic figures contributed to the saying Wildlife Pays, So Wildlife Stays.
    语言与文化的关系问题是学术界讨论的热门话题之一。虽然讨论者的观点和角度各不相同,但大都把它放在跨文化交际学研究的范围内,主要依据是语言工具论的观点。然而,随着人类对语言研究的不断深入,学术界已开始逐渐认识到: 语言不可能只是一个简单的交际工具。在人与人的交际过程中,语言在传递信息、转达思想时,又会以各种方式使所传递的信息和转达的思想变形,并对它们加以不同程度的限制。因此,博电竞网不能把语言简单地看成是反映社会文化生活的一面镜子,语言与文化的关系不可能仅仅是反映与被反映的关系。其实,任何文化活动,甚至人的思维,均要受到语言的制约。人类的文化遗产大多数是通过语言文本保存下来的。比如,博电竞网所说的历史是语言文本化了的历史,博电竞网所说的哲学思想也是以语言形式呈现出来的。

一、英译汉: 50分
按照世界旅游组织的观点,肯尼亚做了一件好事。该组织在一项早期的国家公园研究中确定,肯尼亚安波赛里公园的每只狮子每年给当地部族带来的旅游收益是27000美元,而一个象群就能够带来每年61万美元的旅游收益。国际野生生物资源保护组织所做的一项补充调查表明,国家公园作为野生动物的庇护所每年每公顷面积价值为18美元,而在最乐观的情况下,每年每公顷的农业收益只有36美分。数字差异如此悬殊,难怪人们要说: 野生生物自足就能自在。
二、汉译英: 50分
    The relationship between language and culture is one of the hot issues being discussed by academic circles. Though it is approached from different perspectives, it mainly falls into the category of cross-cultural communication studies, based on the viewpoint that language, after all, is used as a tool. However, with a better understanding of language, academic circles have come to realize that language cannot be regarded as only a simple tool of communication. While transmitting messages and conveying thoughts, language can change and defile them in varying degrees. Therefore, we must not simply regard language as a mirror reflecting the society and culture. The relationship between language and culture cannot be only one between the reflecting and the reflected. As a result, any culture and even thinking are inevitably influenced by language. It is by means of written texts that most of the human’s cultural heritage is preserved. History and philosophy, for example, are both passed on by written texts.
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